Recent Changes

Monday, October 17

  1. page Streptococcus pyogenes edited TITLE: Streptococcus Pyogenes Pyogenes, Flesh Eating Bacteria AUTHOR: Sara Chou DATE: May 19, …
    TITLE: Streptococcus PyogenesPyogenes, Flesh Eating Bacteria
    AUTHOR: Sara Chou
    DATE: May 19, 2011
    (view changes)
    1:33 pm

Monday, June 6

  1. page Treatment of Rabies edited ... May 17, 2011 Abstract ... the disease. Introduction Of the reported infectious diseas…
    ...
    May 17, 2011
    Abstract
    ...
    the disease.
    Introduction
    Of the reported infectious diseases, rabies has the highest cause-to-fatality ratio (Adedeji, 2010). Prevention is a very important step to eliminate the need for treatment of the rabies virus. However prevention is not always possible, especially in low-income countries where there is a lack of funding and resources. Vaccination in dogs is the single most important procedure that needs to take place in underdeveloped countries to help prevent rabies. This is due to the fact that 99% of human infection results from the bites of dogs (WHO, 2010). This gives us good incentive to spend the extra money in the U.S. to give our animals rabies vaccinations.
    ...
    Discussion
    Because human rabies cases in the United States are uncommon, only high-risk individuals receive rabies shots on a routine basis. This includes animal control professionals, veterinarians, and laboratory workers. For those that do not get vaccinations, a test for rabies should be taken if bitten. The wound should immediately be cleaned with soap and water. If a person is tested positive for rabies, they should immediately undergo post exposure prophylaxis. PEP consists of anti-rabies vaccine and immune globulin injections. PEP is recommended after contact with a bat or an unprovoked bite of certain animals. A few of these animals include skunks, foxes, raccoons, bobcat, and coyotes. For domestic animals such as cats and dogs, the animal needs to be confined and has to be killed if rabies symptoms are seen.
    ...
    discussed later.
    In

    In
    underdeveloped countries,
    ...
    use (2010).
    About 40% of people given PEP are children ages 5 to 14 and the majority are male (WHO, 2010). A study done in Thailand shows that it was more cost effective to give children a pre-exposure vaccination (PREP) if the dog bite incidence is greater than 2-30% (Chulasugandha, 2006). Health care budgets are setting aside large amounts of money for perfecting PEP, when more focus should be put on vaccinating animals, which would help eliminate the problem to begin with. Failure of canine rabies control is often due to social, cultural, and traditional beliefs as well as a lack of perception of the burden of the disease. A greater awareness of rabies is also essential in saving lives of infected individuals.
    Survivor of Rabies
    ...
    “Jea {2574.jpg} http://jeanna-giese-news.newslib.com/nna Giese Graduates from College”
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VohLfbDMNnk
    ...
    some day.
    Literature Cited
    Adedeji, A. O. (2010). An overview of rabies- History, epidemiology, control and possible elimination. African Journal of Microbiology Research, 4(22), 2327-2338
    Chulasugandha, P. , Khawplod, P. , Havanond, P. , & Wilde, H. (2006). Cost comparison of rabies pre-exposure vaccination with post-exposure treatment in thai children. Vaccine, 24(9), 1478-1482.
    Tortora, Gerald J. 2010. Microbiology: An introduction. Pearson Education, Inc., San Francisco, 622-624.
    Hampson, K. , Cleaveland, S. , & Briggs, D. (2011). Evaluation of cost-effective strategies for rabies post-exposure vaccination in low-income countries. Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, 5(3), .
    Nigg, A. , & Walker, P. (2009). Overview, prevention, and treatment of rabies. Pharmacotherapy, 29(10), 1182-1195
    Willoughby, J. (2007). A cure for rabies? Scientific American, 296(4), r2007, Vol-r2007, V95.
    World Health Organization. Rabies Vaccines: WHO Position Paper. (2010). http://www.who.int/wer/2010/wer8532.pdf
    (view changes)
    5:38 pm

Friday, May 27

  1. page Thursday Lab Research Projects edited ... {Margot_Jacquelyn.jpg} Margot & Jacquelyn Margot Wolfer- Mad Cow Disease- The Effect of P…
    ...
    {Margot_Jacquelyn.jpg} Margot & Jacquelyn
    Margot Wolfer- Mad Cow Disease- The Effect of Prions in Cattle
    Jacquelyn Yerian - Creutzfeldt - Jakob disease
    {McKenna_Rory.jpg} McKenna & Rory
    McKenna Ramiro The Real E.T’s- Streptococcus Sets Sail in Space
    (view changes)
    4:01 pm
  2. page Geomyces destructans, an Emerging Infectious Disease edited ... Geomyces destructans infects bat colonies during the winter season when they are hibernating. …
    ...
    Geomyces destructans infects bat colonies during the winter season when they are hibernating. It colonizes the skin of bats by using fungal hyphae. The colonies grow and form a mold covering on the ears, nose, and wings of infected bats. The fungus destroys the tissue it inhabits, wakes up the bats, and therefore disrupts the bat’s hibernation cycle. If bats wake up early from hibernation, they use up their fat reserves prematurely and die from starvation and dehydration. Many dead bats that have been recovered from infected cave sites “contain little or none of the critical stored fat that bats must have to survive months of winter hibernation” (Wilson, 2010). Also, scientists speculate that when infected bats wake up, they disturb the other bats and cause deaths in those bats as well. Another effect White Nose Syndrome has on bats is it causes scarring of the infected tissue. These tissues are “essential for regulating physiological functions such as body temperature and blood pressure” so the scarring causes further disruption among the bats’ systems (Brown, 2009). When looking under a microscope, researchers found “no signs of inflammatory response,” indicating the bats’ bodies are not defending them against the infection (Sahagun, 2011). So far, the bats known to be affected by G. destructans are the twenty-five species of hibernating bats. The little brown bat seems to be most susceptible to the fungus and has had the biggest population decline. After the first year of G. destrucans’ discovery, there was an 85% decline in the little brown bat’s population. In certain caves, among a particular bat colony there have been 97% mortality rates. Since March 2008, “biologists estimate that over a million bats have died from the disease, many of which have been little brown bats” (USGS, 2009). Because of such rapid spreading of Geomyces destructans, and such sharp decline in bat populations, bats are at a huge risk of population extinction. Biologists still do not know how to control the rapidly-spreading fungus. They cannot use a fungicide because that could kill off other important microbes in the caves. Some people even thought to use heaters in the caves so Geomyces destructans would not be able to grow, but this too would disrupt the bats’ hibernation. In addition, removing already-infected bats would not help the situation since the fungus would just begin growing again on healthy bats. Finding a vaccine against the infectious fungus seems to be the only option. G. destructans’ extreme effects and power over bat populations demonstrates the seriousness of the issue.
    {http://skinnymoose.com/wildlifepro/wp-content/uploads/2009/05/wns-bats-267x300.jpg} The red arrows are pointing to Geomyces destructans growing on the noses of these hibernating bats (they are infected with White Nose Syndrome).
    {http://0-www.sciencemag.org.iii.sonoma.edu/content/329/5992/679/F3.medium.gif} A
    A
    - C
    Why should we care?
    Although some people say the declining bat population is just of scientific interest, it should be of interest to the entire human population since it could greatly affect our lives. Bats are critical players in the food chain and consume immense amount of insects, some of which are plant pathogens or transmitters of viruses (such as mosquitoes carrying West Nile Virus). For example, each night, one bat eats their body weight in insects. In Indiana, a colony of big brown bats has “been estimated to eat nearly 1.3 million pest insects each year, possibly contributing to the disruption of population cycles of agricultural pests” (Boyles, Cryan, McCracken, and Kunz, 2011). It is evident that bats contribute hugely to pest suppression in agriculture and declining populations increases the amount of pesticides needed. This, in turn, causes the cost of food to rise. With increased use of pesticides also come secondary consequences such as environmental damage. Insects could evolve and become resistant to the overly-used pesticides which would cause huge problems in agricultural industries; this would directly impact food availability. Recent estimates indicate that “the value of pest control provided by bats each year is at least 3.7 billion nationwide” (Sahagun, 2011). In addition to bats regulating insect populations, they also pollinate some plants including the saguaro cactus. Biologists believe there will also be many unknown consequences that come with the severe decline in bat populations, due to Geomyces destructans. Because all ecosystems or connected, the decline in bats could be potentially harmful to a handful of other organisms. G. destructans is definitely worthy of notice and its growth should be studied and monitored. President Obama actually mandated federal funding for the research of Geomyces destructans and the monitoring of White Nose Syndrome in the United States.
    (view changes)
    3:37 pm
  3. page Thursday Lab Research Projects edited ... {Hannah_Vince.jpg} Hannah & Vince Hannah Marshall- An Invisible Enemy Vince O'Brien- Si…
    ...
    {Hannah_Vince.jpg} Hannah & Vince
    Hannah Marshall- An Invisible Enemy
    Vince O'Brien- Sinus-DwellingO'Brien - __Sinus-Dwelling Bone KillerKiller__
    {Reyna_Tammy.jpg} Reyna & Tammy
    Reyna Reyburn - Bacteria in the Body: Helping Us Use Energy
    (view changes)
    3:16 pm
  4. page Tuesday Lab Research Projects edited ... Partners) -- see our Semester Research Projects Coming Soon! Projects! {Laura_Kelley.…

    ...
    Partners) -- see our Semester Research Projects Coming Soon!Projects!
    {Laura_Kelley.jpg} Laura & Kelley
    Laura Minkel - Effects of Human Immunodeficiency Virus
    (view changes)
    1:25 pm
  5. page Hematopoietic Stem Cells edited ... Negrin, R.S., Atkinson, K., Leemhuis, T., Hanania, E., Juttner, C., Tierney, K., Hu, W.W., Joh…
    ...
    Negrin, R.S., Atkinson, K., Leemhuis, T., Hanania, E., Juttner, C., Tierney, K., Hu, W.W., Johnston, L.J., Shizurn, J.A., Stockerl-Goldstein, K.E., Blume, K.G., Weissman, I.L., Bower, S., Baynes, R., Dansey, R., Karanes, C., Peters, W., and Klein, J. (2000). Transplantation of highly purified CD34+Thy-1+hematopoietic stem cells in patients with metastatic breast cancer. Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant. 6, 262–271.–271.
    Stem cell research controversey [Web log message]. (2010, November 11). Retrieved from http://kennedysdisease.blogspot.com/2010/11/stem-cell-research-controversy.html
    Tortorta,Tortora, Gerard J.,
    University of Minnesota.(2010).Bone marrow biopsy. [Web]. Retrieved from http://www.cancer.umn.edu/cancerinfo/NCI/CDR257991.html (lymphocyte pic)
    5. Hematopoietic Stem Cells. In Stem Cell Information [World Wide Web site]. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services,2011[cited Tuesday, May 17, 2011] Available at <http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/scireport/chapter5>
    (view changes)
    12:18 pm
  6. page Tick-Borne Illness - Lyme Disease edited ... · Wear long-sleeved shirts and long pants with cuffs tucked into shoes or socks · Wear high b…
    ...
    · Wear long-sleeved shirts and long pants with cuffs tucked into shoes or socks
    · Wear high boots, preferably rubber
    ...
    (Volvick, 2010). (Misspelled her name: is Vorvick; see your LITERATURE CITED.)
    {http://www.amihealth.com/lyme-disease-treatment.jpg}
    amihealth.com
    ...
    lifeafterlymedisease.com
    ==
    Literature Cited:==
    Black,
    Cited:
    Not Cited in your paper: Black,
    J.G. 2008.
    Edlow, MD., Jonathon. "Introduction to Tick-borne diseases." MedScape Reference, 2009. <http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/786652-overview>.
    Karow, Julia. "Most experts maintain the Lyme vaccine's risks are small, but a few patients don't think so." Battling Lyme Disease, Published in Scientific American (2000). <http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=battling-lyme-disease>.
    MayoNot Cited in your paper: Mayo Clinic. "Treatments
    Todar, PhD, Kenneth. "Borrelia burgdorferi and Lyme Disease." Textbook of Bacteriolgy, 2011. <http://www.textbookofbacteriology.net/Lyme.html>.
    Vorvick,Vorvick , MD., Linda.
    (view changes)
    12:11 pm
  7. page Treatment Agents of HIV and AIDS edited ... {hiv5.png} (Aids Community Research Intiative of America) ... antiviral activities. (Yo…
    ...
    {hiv5.png}
    (Aids Community Research Intiative of America)
    ...
    antiviral activities. (You need to give Van Wesenbeeck et al. (2011) credit for this information, Kelley.)
    {hiv6.png}
    The diagram below demonstrates where and how each of the treatment agents described in this research paper act on HIV/AIDS infiltrating a CD4 cell.
    (view changes)
    11:54 am
  8. page Treatment Agents of HIV and AIDS edited ... {hiv2.png} (Stanford.edu) ... is the virus that causes ... Tuberculosis, Toxoplasmosis…
    ...
    {hiv2.png}
    (Stanford.edu)
    ...
    is the virus that causes
    ...
    Tuberculosis, Toxoplasmosis, Cryptosporidiosisor Cryptosporidiosis. Some people
    ...
    get life-threatening diseases called ,diseases, which are
    ...
    by microbes such as viruses, , or , which would
    Discussion
    ...
    pathways. ( AIDS Review)Joli, 1999) NNRTI’s are
    Pharmacological Properties of Current available NNRTI’s
    Nevirapine
    ...
    P450 Inducer
    {hiv_3.png}
    ...
    NNRTI (PNAS) )
    Next, Protease inhibitors have played an essential role in the treatment of HIV/AIDS. Protease inhibitors or PI’s are aimed at increasing the number of the CD4 white blood cells, which will aide in strengthening a person who is infected with HIV or AIDS immune system. For optimal effects PI’s are used in combination with reverse transcriptase inhibitors which were mentioned above. There are four common Protease inhibitor’s include saquinavir mesylate, ritonavir, indinavir sulfate, and nelfinavir mesylate. The PI’s are chosen on an individual basis, by evaluating factors such as activity, costs, possible toxicities, dosing regimens, and drug interactions. (HIV-1 Protease Inhibitors). “Patients treated with ritonavir, indinavir, or nelfinavir tend to have similar reductions in viral load and increases in CD4+ lymphocytes; smaller effects occur among those treated with saquinavir.” (HIV-1 Protease Inhibitors). It is crucial to understand if these drugs are used inappropriately then increased viral reproduction may occur. According to Steven G. Deeks, MD, with JAMA, “The Pl’s have emerged as critical drugs for people with HIV infection, and the expense of these agents may be offset by forestalling disease progression and death and returning people to productive life.
    {hiv4.png}
    (medscape.com)(Image from medscape.com)
    Then, Entry or Fusion Inhibitors aim at preventing the virus from entering any healthy CD4 lymphocyte. Entry Inhibitors effects occur before the cell has been infected, not after like NNRTI’s and PI’s. Two of the entry inhibitors that have been approved by the FDA include Fuzeon, and Selzentry or Celesentri. According to AIDSmeds, “Entry inhibitors work by attaching themselves to proteins on the surface of CD4 cells or proteins on the surface of HIV. In order for HIV to bind to CD4 cells, the proteins on HIV's outer coat must bind to the proteins on the surface of CD4 cells. Entry inhibitors prevent this from happening. Some entry inhibitors target the gp120 or gp41 proteins on HIV's surface. Some entry inhibitors target the CD4 protein or the CCR5 or CXCR4 receptors on a CD4 cell's surface. If entry inhibitors are successful in blocking these proteins, HIV is unable to bind to the surface of CD4 cells and gain entry into the cells.” Clearly, entry inhibitors are essential in the antiretroviral therapy of HIV/AIDS as it’s goal not let the virus invade any other CD4 lymphocytes.
    {hiv5.png}
    (Aids Community Research Intiative of America)
    ...
    with HIV. VaisVasu Nair (2007) defines HIV-1
    {hiv6.png}
    The diagram below demonstrates where and how each of the treatment agents described in this research paper act on HIV/AIDS infiltrating a CD4 cell.
    ...
    5. Joli, Veronique, and Patrick Yeni. "Non Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors." AIDS Review 1 (1999): 37-44. Print.
    6. Nair, Vasu, and Guhochen Chi. "HIV Integrase Inhibitors as Therapuetic Agents in Aids." Medical Virology 17 (2007): 277-95. Print.
    ...
    hiv-1 integrase
    inhibitors
    inhibitors using a
    (view changes)
    11:50 am

More